Archive for September, 2011

Albrecht Durer

Sunday, September 18th, 2011

Durer was born May 21, 1471 in Nuremberg, the son of a goldsmith, who arrived in this German city of Hungary in the mid XV century. In this family, there were 18 children, of whom the future great artist was the third child and second son. His father, Albereht Durer the elder, was a goldsmith. At first his father tried to inspire his son jewelry business, but then realized that her son artistic talent at the age of 15 years, Albert was sent to study at a workshop leader Nuremberg painter Michael Wohlgemuth at the time. There Durer learned not only painting, but engraving on wood and copper. Education in 1490 to complete the journey by tradition – for four years, the young man traveled to several cities in Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands, while continuing to improve in the visual arts and material processing. In 1494, Durer returned to Nuremberg, shortly after which he married. He then in the same year, takes a trip to Italy, where he met with the works of Mantegna, Polayolo, Lorenzo di Credi, and other masters.

In 1495 Durer returns to his hometown and for the next ten years creating a significant part of his engravings, have now become famous. In 1505 Durer went back to Italy. In 1520, the artist takes a trip to the Netherlands, where he became the victim of an unknown disease, then it muchivshey until his death. Durer died on April 6, 1528 at home in Nuremberg. Durer was the first in Europe, the magic square, shown in his engraving "Melancholia" (see Albrecht Durer's square). In the work of Durer created dignified and courageous, a truly humanistic image of man complex era. "Self Portrait" (1500. Alte Pinakothek.

Munich) holds a special place not only in German but also in all European art, reflecting the depth and the inconsistency of the creative consciousness, which stood on the verge of two eras. Depicting themselves in a strictly frontal pose, Durer used a compositional scheme, which medieval artists used for the image of Christ. For him, it had special meaning: a person, according to the author, should remind Saviour only in appearance but also in a figurative sense, the top – ready to take on and carry the "cross" conferred upon him in this life. Not haughty pride, but deep religious consciousness comes through in this "adjustment" with a Christ: his peerless artistic gift Durer (almost reached the threshold of the thirtieth) perceives as God's grace and their response to the duty of the Creator, gave him great ability to "create peace" again – brush and chisel. In this self-portrait the artist tried to connect the old system of proportions with the new Renaissance doctrine of the proportions of the human body. In an effort to overcome the conventions of old art, Durer was the first German artists mastered the best artistic achievements of Renaissance Italy. Like Leonardo, he embodies the characteristic of the Renaissance artist-scientist type, combining the rational, scientific knowledge the real world with its deep philosophical reflection and transformative, dynamic and passionate imagination of the artist. Due to the fact that Durer died before the formal registration of Protestant denominations, it is difficult to say accurately, that he became an adept of the Reformation, however, his engravings of the period – namely, several variants of the "Last Supper" clearly shows his keen interest in the ideas advocated by Luther, namely, communion for the laity, not only bread, but wine.

Organizing Grammar

Wednesday, September 7th, 2011

Based on the fact that business English learners need as elements of social language as stable formula, as a large volume of business vocabulary, and others, the authors Book organizers have developed a special language, which are filled with a student as learning. Initially, the teacher and students make up about a scheme of studying the material and be sure to work in one direction. Section "Organizing a language (Language learning organiser) is designed to study everyday, constantly required English, which allows us to express thoughts here and now. This section is for serious intensive linguistic work, developed the basic vocabulary, grammar, etc. For a more individualized materials designed section "Personal Organizer language (Personal language organiser). This could include details of individual character words and topics of interest, about the students and their colleagues, the work place, etc. It's like a counterbalance to the first, the complicated part. The third section of the book – is the "Organizer social language (Social language organiser).

This is the most important part of the book, and included in her dialogues, situations in society, work, patterns of behavior in business dealings. That is all this stuff is watching the natural functioning of business English in natural situations. This is followed by "Organiser reserves the text (Resource text organiser). Here gather the necessary professional texts, as well as video and audio. This dictionary lists of phrases, phrases, sentences, a collection of excerpts, etc., the "Organizer word partner (Word partnership organiser ) is necessary for the accumulation and distribution of words and phrases. Create lists of words, phrases, diagrams. "Organizing Grammar business language (Business grammar organiser) – a section for the exercises and the establishment of reference material on the compilation of statements, "Grinding", for example, verb tenses, a review of common errors, etc., "Organizer of professional language (Professional language organiser) is designed for English on the subject of presentations, negotiations, telephone conversations, meetings, projects for studying verbs on professional student.

And finally, the last of proposed – is the section "Organizing cultural foundation (Cultural background organiser). There was a problem of international communication, intercultural matches, etc. For each section, characterized by the fact that they can be constantly replenished, classify, marshal … the importance of abundant collection of linguistic material will serve as a good service at any time used as a reference, the book is to repeat, improve the professional knowledge of business English. Ideas, the authors described a teacher's guide will be useful when planning lessons business English on the principle of individual approach and help to hold high-training course, created "by the standards of" student.